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Cingranelli-Richards (CIRI) Human Rights Database

Producer: 

David L. Cingranelli, Binghamton University, SUNY, USA. - David L. Richards, University of Connecticut, USA

Stated Purpose: 

The dataset annually produces data about government respect for over 15 human rights in 195 countries.

Area of Governance: 
Human Rights
Funding Source: 

The National Science Foundation (USA), The World Bank

Current usage: 

Governments, Scholars, Intergovernmental Organizations, Nongovernmental Organizations, Students

Type of data used: 

Expert coding of primary sources from US State Department and Amnesty International. US State Department used for most indicators, with Amnesty International evidence being the primary source for Physical Integrity rights (freedom from extrajudicial killing, disappearance, torture, and political imprisonment).

Coverage: 

Country Coverage: 195 countries
Year Coverage: 1981 - 2009
For thirty-three of these countries, added in December 2004, data only exist for 2001 and 2003 and beyond. 
 

Contact details: 

Contact CIRI: info@humanrightsdata.org

David L. Cingranelli, Dept. of Political Science, Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY 13902-6000, davidc@binghamton.edu

David L. Richards, Dept. of Political Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06268-1024 david.l.richards@uconn.edu

 

Methodology: 

Probabilistic polychotomous cumulative scaling is used to construct additive ordinal indices from individual ordinal CIRI human rights indicators.

Format of results: 

Individual Indicators: Most individual indicators in the CIRI dataset range from 0 (no respect for a right) to 2 (full respect for a right). Check for the scale for each individual indicator via the website, since some have larger ranges.

Valid Use: 

These data are of use to scholars engaging in analyses of the correlates, determinants and consequences of government respect for internationally recognized human rights.

Invalid Use: 

Most individual indicators in the CIRI dataset range from 0 (no respect for a right) to 2 (full respect for a right). Check for the scale for each individual indicator  via the website, since some have larger ranges.

The “Physical Integrity Rights” scale is created from four individual indicators (the rights to freedom from extrajudicial killing, disappearance, torture, and political imprisonment), and ranges from 0 (no respect for any of these four rights) to 8 (full respect for all four of these rights).

The “Empowerment Rights” scale is created from seven individual indicators (the rights to freedom of foreign and domestic movement, electoral self-detrmination, workers’ rights, freedom of expression, freedom of religion, freedom of assembly) and ranges from 0 (no respect for any of these five rights) to 14 (full respect for all five of these rights).

Assumption: 

Since CIRI contains standards-based data (except for economic rights), its coding methodology implies that the sources from which these data are drawn are complete and accurate.

Example results: 

The table below shows a selection of individual physical integrity rights indicatorsfor selected countries for the year 1987.