There has been a growing recognition of the importance of ensuring that strategies to build governance are grounded in empirically-based research. This has led to expanding efforts to develop indicators and tools to measure governance. In post-conflict environments, the chal- lenges of both producing and bringing evidence on governance to bear on reforms are very complex. This paper explores the State of governance evidence production and usage in Ser- bia in the context of its various types of governance challenges. The study (1) documents ex- isting initiatives of local actors to generate knowledge on governance and promote its uptake into policy, (2) analyses the extent to which there is both demand for and supply of govern- ance-related knowledge and (3) examines the ways governance data is produced and shapes reform in the social protection sector. The study is based on a literature review of English and Serbian language sources and on semi-structured interviews conducted with staff from 20 government, civil society and international organizations carried out in late 2008.