Over the last decade, the importance of grounding efforts to promote human development and human security in empirically-based research, has become increasingly visible, particularly in developed country contexts such as the United Kingdom but also increasingly in developing country contexts (e.g. Court et al., 2005). Surprisingly, however, there has been little discussion about evidence-informed policy and programming in fragile states despite increasing attention to governance challenges by the international community since the launch of the so-called ―War on Terror . As Collier (2007: 3) has emphasized, the challenge we face lies not in an expan- sive focus on the five billion individuals in developing countries, but on the bottom billion who reside in countries that are ̳falling behind, and often falling apart‘. In the same vein, approxi- mately two thirds of the 34 countries most off-track in terms of achieving the Millennium Devel- opment Goals of poverty reduction, human capital development, gender equality, environmental sustainability and the provision of decent work for all can be characterized as fragile, conflict or recent post-conflict contexts (DFID, 2009).